Refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to society and can be changed. The concept of gender includes five important elements: relational, hierarchical, historical, contextual and institutional. While most people are born either male or female, they are taught appropriate norms and behaviours – including how they should interact with others of the same or opposite sex within households, communities and work places. When individuals or groups do not “fit” established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices or social exclusion – all of which adversely affect health.

Source | WHO

Gender Stereotypes
Images, beliefs, attitudes or assumptions about certain groups of women and men. Stereotypes are usually negative and based on assumed gender norms, roles and relations.

Source | WHO

The process of becoming whole again. Healing is the pathway to restore wellbeing for those who have experienced trauma and suffering. Healing from trauma is found in awareness and actions that address the conditions that created the trauma in the first place. Moreover, healing is experienced collectively and in relationship with others.

Source | SOURCE | Shawn Ginwright, The Future of Healing: Shifting From Trauma Informed Care to Healing Centered Engagement

Intersectionality is an analytic sensibility, a way of thinking about identity and its relationship to power. Originally articulated on behalf of Black women, the term brought to light the invisibility of many constituents within groups that claim them as members, but often fail to represent them. Intersectional erasures are not exclusive to Black women. People of color within LGBTQ movements; girls of color in the fight against the school-to-prison pipeline; women within immigration movements; trans women within feminist movements; and people with disabilities fighting police abuse — all face vulnerabilities that reflect the intersections of racism, sexism, class oppression, transphobia, able-ism and more. Intersectionality has given many advocates a way to frame their circumstances and to fight for their visibility and inclusion.

Source | Kimberle Crenshaw (Washington Post, 2015)

Misogynoir combines "misogyny" and "noir" to describe the anti-Black sexism and misogyny that Black women face.

Source | Created by Moya Bailey and @thetrudz

Sex refers to a set of biological attributes in humans and animals. It is primarily associated with physical and physiological features including chromosomes, gene expression, hormone levels and function, and reproductive/sexual anatomy. Sex is usually categorized as female or male but there is variation in the biological attributes that comprise sex and how those attributes are expressed.

Source | Canadian Institute of Health Research

Sexual Assault
Sexual assault is any type of sexual activity or contact that you do not consent to. Sexual assault can happen through physical force or threats of force or if the attacker gave the victim drugs or alcohol as part of the assault. Sexual assault includes rape and sexual coercion.

Source |

Sexual Coercion
Coercion is a tactic used by perpetrators to intimidate, trick or force someone to have sex with him/her without physical force. Coercion is an issue of power and control.

Source | University of Michigan (Striving for Justice report)